Easy Guide to macOS NVRAM Reset: Troubleshoot & Optimize Settings

macbook nvram reset

Non-Volatile Random-Access Memory (NVRAM) plays a crucial role in the seamless operation of macOS, storing essential settings that influence the system’s behavior from startup. Occasionally, macOS users may encounter issues that can be resolved by resetting NVRAM, such as problems with startup disk selection, screen resolution, and system sounds. This procedure is applicable to both Intel-based and M1+ Macs, albeit with slight variations in the process.

This article aims to explain the concept of NVRAM, guide you through the reset process for different Mac models, highlight the benefits of this action, and address frequently asked questions.

Signs You Need to Reset NVRAM:

  • Incorrect startup disk selection
  • Display resolution issues
  • Sound output problems
  • Incorrect system time and date

Understanding NVRAM on macOS

What is NVRAM?

NVRAM is a small amount of memory that your Mac uses to store certain settings in a location that macOS can access quickly. These settings include your preferred startup disk, screen resolution, speaker volume, and recent kernel panic information, if applicable. Unlike regular RAM, NVRAM retains data even when your Mac is turned off, ensuring that these essential settings are preserved between sessions. This functionality is vital for maintaining the operational efficiency and custom preferences of your macOS system.

Differences Between NVRAM and PRAM

Historically, Mac computers utilized Parameter RAM (PRAM) to store similar information. However, with technological advancements, Apple transitioned to using NVRAM in modern Macs. The shift from PRAM to NVRAM marks a significant evolution in how Macs store and access vital system settings. NVRAM, being non-volatile, does not require power to retain information, whereas PRAM relied on a small battery. This change reflects Apple’s commitment to enhancing the reliability and performance of its devices.

Signs You Need to Reset NVRAM

Resetting NVRAM may be beneficial if you’re experiencing:

  • Issues with your Mac’s startup disk not being correctly identified.
  • Anomalies in screen resolution settings that persist despite adjustments.
  • Sound problems, such as unexpected volume levels or non-functional audio outputs.
  • Incorrect system time and date settings, or problems with time zone detection.
    These symptoms suggest that the stored values in NVRAM may be corrupt or improperly configured, necessitating a reset to restore normal operation.
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How to Reset NVRAM on Intel-based Macs

Step-by-Step Guide

Resetting the NVRAM on Intel-based Macs is a straightforward process that can resolve a variety of issues. Follow these steps to perform the reset:

  1. Shut Down Your Mac: Ensure your Mac is completely turned off.
  2. Power On and Reset: Press the power button and immediately hold down the Command + Option + P + R keys simultaneously.
  3. Hold the Keys: Keep holding these keys for about 20 seconds. During this time, your Mac may appear to restart.
  4. Release the Keys: After the 20 seconds have passed, release the keys. Your Mac will continue to boot up normally.

By following these steps, you reset the NVRAM to its default state, which can help resolve any issues you were experiencing.

Troubleshooting Tips

If you encounter problems while trying to reset the NVRAM on your Intel-based Mac, consider these tips:

  • Keyboard Not Recognized: Ensure you’re using a direct keyboard connection. Wireless keyboards may not be recognized early enough in the boot process.
  • No Apparent Change: If the issues persist after resetting, ensure that you held the key combination long enough or try the process again.
  • System Preferences Reset: After a successful NVRAM reset, you may need to adjust some system preferences, such as sound volume or screen resolution, back to your desired settings.

Resetting NVRAM on M1/M2/M3 Macs

Differences in the Reset Process

The process for resetting NVRAM on M1 Macs differs significantly from that of Intel-based Macs. M1/M2/M3 Macs automatically test and reset the NVRAM as needed during the startup process. This automation reflects the advanced architecture of the Apple silicon, simplifying troubleshooting steps for users.

Instructions for M1/M2/M3 Macs

For M1/M2/M3 Mac users, the process is more straightforward and requires less intervention:

  1. Shut Down Your Mac: Ensure your Mac is completely turned off.
  2. Power On: Simply turn on your Mac. The M1/M2/M3 chip automatically checks the NVRAM during boot and resets it if necessary.

Since there is no manual key combination to reset NVRAM on M1/M2/M3 Macs, the process is simplified. However, if you’re experiencing issues that you suspect are related to NVRAM, simply restarting your Mac can trigger the automatic check and reset process.

reset nvram

Benefits of Resetting NVRAM

Performance Improvements

Resetting NVRAM on your Mac can lead to noticeable performance improvements, especially if you’ve been experiencing issues that directly relate to the settings stored in NVRAM. By clearing this memory, your Mac can reinitialize and correctly apply settings for startup disk selection, display resolution, and system sound configuration. This process can eliminate delays during boot-up, resolve display resolution mismatches that affect performance, and ensure optimal audio output settings, contributing to a smoother and more efficient overall user experience.

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Benefits of Resetting NVRAM:

Improved System PerformanceResolves boot and operational delays.
Corrected Display and Sound IssuesFixes screen resolution and audio problems.
Accurate System SettingsEnsures correct startup disk, time, and date.

Solving Common Mac Issues

Resetting NVRAM can address a variety of common issues that Mac users may encounter, including:

  • Startup problems: Difficulty selecting the correct startup disk or booting into the operating system.
  • Display issues: Incorrect screen resolution or problems with video output settings.
  • Audio problems: Issues with sound output, such as no sound or volume control discrepancies.
  • Time and date errors: Incorrect system time, date, or time zone settings.
    By resetting NVRAM, these problems are often resolved without the need for more invasive troubleshooting steps or technical support interventions.

Advanced Tips: Using Terminal to Reset NVRAM

When to Use Terminal

Using Terminal to reset NVRAM might be necessary when standard reset methods do not resolve the issues, or when you prefer a command-line approach for troubleshooting. This method is particularly useful for advanced users who are comfortable with macOS’s command-line interface.

Terminal Commands for NVRAM Reset

To reset NVRAM via Terminal, follow these steps with caution:

  1. Open Terminal: You can find Terminal in the Utilities folder within your Applications folder.
  2. Enter the Command: Type the following command and press Enter:
   sudo nvram -c

This command clears the current NVRAM contents. You may be prompted to enter your administrator password to proceed.

  1. Restart Your Mac: After executing the command, restart your Mac to allow the changes to take effect.

Precautions: Be cautious when using Terminal, as incorrect commands can potentially harm your system. Always ensure you have backed up important data before proceeding with advanced commands.


What is NVRAM and why would I need to reset it on my Mac?

NVRAM (Non-Volatile Random-Access Memory) stores specific settings in a location that macOS can access quickly. Resetting NVRAM may be necessary to resolve issues related to startup disk selection, display resolution, system sound settings, and more.

How do I reset NVRAM on an Intel-based Mac?

To reset NVRAM on an Intel-based Mac, shut down your Mac, then turn it on and immediately press and hold the Command + Option + P + R keys for about 20 seconds before releasing them.

Can I reset NVRAM on my M1 Mac, and if so, how?

M1 Macs automatically manage NVRAM resets as needed during startup. Simply restarting your M1 Mac can trigger a check and potential reset of NVRAM without manual intervention.

What issues can resetting NVRAM fix on my Mac?

Resetting NVRAM can fix issues such as incorrect startup disk selection, display resolution problems, sound issues, and incorrect system time and date settings.

Is it safe to reset NVRAM, and are there any risks?

Resetting NVRAM is generally safe and can resolve many common issues without any negative consequences. However, you may need to reconfigure some system preferences afterward.

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